Gupta India

In that era that Indian Empire had been growing, the megalith builders tried ways of using pure stone. They carved out stone cliffs and pilled out the stones to gather making the art of subtraction. Subtraction is something that allows people to give up on functional criteria such as foundations, support systems and roofs. However, it provides organization of materials as well. Once they removed the materials, it was nt easy to replace it again. The rock-cut temples were relied upon the things what nature gave to them.

In the Gupta period, the builders were known as their success of the rock-cutting traditions. They were affected from the great cave monasteries by carving single masses of stones. The examples of initial temples were built seem like pyramids over small sanctruaries.

Their architects designed their buildings according to their religious beliefs. The multiple sources of religious and secular authority, however,  continued to discourage national unity. The Buddishm that they believed has provided a lot of different prototypes. So that, they have worked again on the buildings according to Hindu and Jain buidings. Buddhists promoted their projects for chaitya halls and viharas (monasteries). However, few of them built with permanent materials. The examples that has remained are the ones in the carved in the cliffs. The Ghats, hills formed from horizontal shelves of stone in the central western regions of India near Mumbai, served as the site for many of the great rock-cut works. The caves that are located in Bhaja, were almost the earliest Indian Rock-cut temples. The most ornamented examples of the early rock chaitya halls were located in Karli. The designers of the screen doors and clerestory windows of the halls made with the combination of stone with wooden details. The designers used pointed and flat chisels to carve the stone.   The Temple 17, looked like it was extracted from a cliff and transferred to a site. The columns that have rose frome square bases created a level of complexity, similar to the ones at the chaitya. The monasteries with Buddhist affect which Ajanta, Maharashastra in the 5th century, have the marvelous decoration that had coprus statues of Buddha. The palaces at that location had open varendhas decorated with wooden columns. The horzontally placed vaults titled the city  gates.

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