For the revision, I came up with a new idea but with the same confrontations. This time I used masses instead of spaces. The brown cardboard is divides design into two ( Wall House 2). In one of the side there are couple of masses, however in the other side there is just only monolithic mass. In multi mass side, I also used two dimensional flat surfaces too. The yellow parts are showing the temporal spaces that are created by the confrontation of the spaces. Some of the masses are floated as well as in the case studies that I have.
For this week of the course, we were assigned to produce a collage of the case studies of the given house list to us. However the tricky part was that we were also given two keyword phrases for a initiator point.
Initially I started with analyzing my keywords;
Spread confrontation: for confrontation there should be at least two contrary things. clashing of two confronted things.
Temporal space: temporal is something related with a particular time.
- Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye / Poissy, France, 1929
- Adalberto Libera, Villa Malaparte / Naples, Italy, 1938
- Richard Meier, Saltzman House / Long Island, 1969
- Kazuyo Sejima, Ryue Nishizawa & Associates / SANAA, Moriyama Apartments / Japan, 2005
- Erkut Şahinbaş, Atrium Evi, Muğla, 2014
- Rem Koolhaas / OMA, Villa Dall’Ava / France, 1991
- Shigeru Ban Glass Shutter House / Japan, 2003
- John Hejduk, Wall House 2 / Netherlands, 2001
- Can Çinici, Microloft I Yarasa, İstanbul, 2013
So then on, I did a detailed research about the houses and the case studies. According to those case studies that I have, I searched them according the confronted ones. In other words, I tried to group them according to the contrasting ones.
- The Wall House by John Hejduk, the whole composition was divided and disconnected by an enormous wall. With this way architect differentiated the spaces according to their functions. Villa Savoye by Le Corbusier, the private spaces were situated around the communal, outdoor terraced that is separated from the living area by a sliding glass window.
- Villa malaperte by Adalberto Libera, the geometry of the design itself generated a foreign language than its environment. Villa Dall’ava by Rem Koolhaas, the whole composition is influenced by its site.
- Saltzman House by Richard Meier, it is designed as monolithic mass.Moriyama Apartments by Kazuyo Sejima, Ryue Nishizawa & Associates, the composition is consisted of 10 different independent volumes.
- Wall House 2, design is focused on both flat 2 dimensional and pure volumes. (this one creates a confrontation in itself.)
These were some of the confronted things that I could find. Here is my collage below;
These are the 3D collages that I have produced;
In this one I designed different geometrical formed spaces to confront each other (Villa Malaparte and its environment). In the confronted parts, the spaces are reacting each other and changes its form (black parts are the ones reacted). Also I lifted up some of the spaces to interrupt the relation with their environment (as like Villa Savoye, Wall House 2 and Saltzman House) and I tried to show them as free standing masses.
This is the first revised one that I have produced. With the black frames I tried to design open spaced such as Villa Savoye’s terrace. Then I designed more enclosed spaces opening to the black one as private spaces. In this time, I have designed temporal spaces where two spaces are confronted. With the grey material I produced those temporal spaces which are again in a different geometrical form. Also those are creating a central axis in the design similarly to Wall House 2 has.
The idea of renaissance in Italy had a lot of influences of ancient Rome. The renaissance Italy inspired the priest in ancient Rome. They have adopted a brand new style based on symmetry, great proportions and classical columns. It features the use of classical motifs and the architectural orders such as columns styles of antiquity.
In 15th century, Italy inspired by the poets and thinkers such as Dante,Boccaccio, Petrarch. So that humanism started to spread all around the Italy as well as the arts and architecture. The designers and architects of the Florence discovered a brand new principles of design instead of copying antiquity. They kept chasing after new harmonious proportions of classical orders. The architecture and most of the structures influenced by humanism. It gave them a more uniform scale and geometric basis. Rulers and also governors realized the importance of relation between architecture and urban planning to promoting notions of an ordered society.
Flippo Brunelleschi was an architect who is known with his new invention of unique Italian renaissance. He used Corinthian half columns. This shows that the architect is very familiar with the ancient monuments. He used both Gothic structural elements and Roman techniques. One of his great example of this is Dome of Florence. This huge dome became a symbol of not only Renaissance Florence but also of structural and engineering skills. When this dome built in 15th century, it was the largest one have been built in antiquity.
Renaissance style places and buildings mostly emphasizes the symmetry, proportion, geometry, regularity of parts as they re demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture of which many examples have been remained. They inspired by the Romans’ architectural style such a by using orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels as well as the use of semicircular arches. Hemispherical domes and niches replaced the more complex proportional systems.
Plans of the renaissance buildings in Italy mostly settled in a square and symmetrical appearance in which proportions are mostly based on module. Santa Maria del Fiore is one of the most significant example of this planning. As can be seen in the Palladian Villas, the facades of the renaissance architecture buildings were symmetric around their vertical axis.In columns and in pilasters, they mostly again used Roman orders of columns such as Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and etc. Domes were used frequently and was a vey large structural feature that is visible from the exterior.
After the ninth century, the traditions of religion of Persian culture portraits were created in various political contexts. Timur, who is the first champion and who increased the success of Khans, tried to establish a brand new capital city in Samarkand in a Persian style with the help of a Persian architect. At the end of the eigthteenth century, Shah Abbas, where the traditions of the Safavids took the majority of the Pers, began to make the capital Isfahan an enormous gardens town. Timur, who established the Indian sovereignty, was trying to use the outline and the language while trying to adjust the qualities of the Indian order.
The Persian Renaissance
They were supporting the monuments of Persian traditions which are lasted for a long time. As well as the Norman kings in the medieval Sicily, these nomadic rulers relied on local craftsmans for their art and architecture. The Seljuks, strengthen the tradiitons of local building with the new technique, included demands for more open air public spaces and more significant tomb monuments. Their courts which are iwan styled and large and huge domes, later provided a model for nomadic conquerors.Timur, started to build big cities,in Masonry buildings with the body parts of the victims which are killed. The ancient city of Samarkand became the model of capitals. Like Khans, he preferred to live in a portable dwelling in a park outside the city.
Although, Spain and France were the sovereign power in Europe, Italy were the one of the most significant place where architectural models came from. Protestants and the nation had a great fight between the divided Catholics. In Spain they were known as the most Catholic nation in the world. The northern Europe was protestant too. However, the southern Europe was catholic. As well as his father Charles 5, Philip 2 supported the sixteenth century’s Rome classical architectural style. His biggest and the greatest monument was monastery of San Lorenzo in Escorial.
In an age of character with theatricality and decorative extremism, a very difficult opposition was offered. Phillip II, like his father, chose the classical style of Rome at the beginning of the sixteenth century and ordered the translation of the thesis of Sebastiano Serlio in Spanish. San Lorenzo monastery has developed the largest architectural project.
The main approach of the Ottoman Empire is to grab the Constantinople and the Islam culture to create an Islamic Roman Empire. In this period, the attitude of the Byzantine architecture and also art have diversified the Damascus, Kiev, Venice, and Cordoba. And then finally Fatih Sultan Mehmet have successfully conquered the Constantinople in 1453. Fatih Sultan Mehmet changed the name of Constantinople into İstanbul. And then for the different ethnic groups in İstanbul governed by the new new laws of owned by him. Also, in order to encourage the merchant activities, he constructed Kapalı Çarşı as Seljuk has approached as well in Koza Han consisted of square bays capped with rounded. Fatih has inspired by the Italy’s technical and cultural innovations, especially the city walls of the new city. They constructed fortifications on the Bosporus to block the Christian naval support to Byzantine. These Yedikule fortifications were star shaped. He converted Hagia Sophia into the Palantine church, added minarets to make a royal church and also changed the main axis. And then on, he constructed Fatih Camii with the inspiration that he gathered from great Byzantine church. This new church was rival with the Hagia Sophia. Because the grand hemispherical dome that is less than few meters diameter than Hagia Sophia. The small cubes were supported by pointed arches of old granite columns on top of each bays of the courtrooms. Plus, he built a tube which is octagonal for himself and for mother of his heir. He demanded to add a brand new palace in the peninsula unlike the old palace in the center of the city. This new palace is called Topkapı Sarayı. It was like an antithesis of European palaces as asymmetrical and looking more like a garden rather than a building. The most significant parts of these palaces were divans and harems. Divan is mostly used for the official meetings of the government. It consisted of three domed spaces and L shaped.