LATE: Humanist Italy /Renaissance

      The idea of renaissance in Italy had a lot of influences of ancient Rome. The renaissance Italy inspired the priest in ancient Rome. They have adopted a brand new style based on symmetry, great proportions and classical columns. It features the use of classical motifs and the architectural orders such as columns styles of antiquity.

      In 15th century, Italy inspired by the poets and thinkers such as Dante,Boccaccio, Petrarch. So that humanism started to spread all around the Italy as well as the arts and architecture. The designers and architects of the Florence discovered a brand new principles of design instead of copying antiquity. They kept chasing after new harmonious proportions of classical orders. The architecture and most of the structures influenced by humanism. It gave them a more uniform scale and geometric basis. Rulers and also governors realized the importance of relation between architecture and urban planning to promoting notions of an ordered society.

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     Flippo Brunelleschi was an architect who is known with his new invention of unique Italian renaissance. He used Corinthian half columns. This shows that the architect is very familiar with the ancient monuments. He used both Gothic structural elements and Roman techniques. One of his great example of this is Dome of Florence. This huge dome became a symbol of not only Renaissance Florence but also of structural and engineering skills. When this dome built in 15th century, it was the largest one have been built in antiquity.

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     Renaissance style places and buildings mostly emphasizes the symmetry, proportion, geometry, regularity of parts as they re demonstrated in the architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman architecture of which many examples have been remained. They inspired by the Romans’ architectural style such a by using orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels as well as the use of semicircular arches. Hemispherical domes and niches replaced the more complex proportional systems.

     Plans of the renaissance buildings in Italy mostly settled in a square and symmetrical appearance in which proportions are mostly based on module. Santa Maria del Fiore is one of the most significant example of this planning.  As can be seen in the Palladian  Villas, the facades of the renaissance architecture buildings were symmetric around their vertical axis.In columns and in pilasters, they mostly again used Roman orders of columns such as Tuscan, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian and etc. Domes were used frequently and was a vey large structural feature that is visible from the exterior.


Islamic Realms in Central Asia

After the ninth century, the traditions of religion of Persian culture portraits were created in various political contexts. Timur, who is the first champion and who increased the success of Khans, tried to establish a brand new capital city in Samarkand in a Persian style with the help of a Persian architect. At the end of the eigthteenth century, Shah Abbas, where the traditions of the Safavids took the majority of the Pers, began to make the capital Isfahan an enormous gardens town. Timur, who established the Indian sovereignty, was trying to use the outline and the language while trying to adjust the qualities of the Indian order.

The Persian Renaissance

They were supporting the monuments of Persian traditions which are lasted for a long time. As well as the  Norman kings in the medieval Sicily, these nomadic rulers relied on local craftsmans for their art and architecture. The Seljuks, strengthen  the tradiitons of local building with the new technique, included demands for more open air public spaces and more significant tomb monuments. Their courts which are iwan styled and large and huge domes, later provided a model for nomadic conquerors.Timur, started to build big cities,in Masonry buildings with the body parts of the victims which are killed. The ancient city of Samarkand became the model of capitals. Like Khans, he preferred to live in a portable dwelling in a park outside the city.

Catholic Europe

Although, Spain and France were the sovereign power in Europe, Italy were the one of the most significant place where architectural models came from. Protestants and the nation had a great fight between the divided Catholics. In Spain they were known as the most Catholic nation in the world. The northern Europe was protestant too. However, the southern Europe was catholic. As well as his father Charles 5, Philip 2 supported the sixteenth century’s Rome classical architectural style. His biggest and the greatest monument was monastery of San Lorenzo in Escorial.

Habsburg Spain

In an age of character with theatricality and decorative extremism, a very difficult opposition was offered. Phillip II, like his father, chose the classical style of Rome at the beginning of the sixteenth century and ordered the translation of the thesis of Sebastiano Serlio in Spanish. San Lorenzo monastery has developed the largest architectural project.

Ottoman Empire

      The main approach of the Ottoman Empire is to grab the Constantinople and the Islam culture to create an Islamic Roman Empire. In this period, the attitude of the Byzantine architecture and also art have diversified the Damascus, Kiev, Venice, and Cordoba. And then finally Fatih Sultan Mehmet have successfully conquered the Constantinople in 1453. Fatih Sultan Mehmet changed the name of Constantinople into İstanbul. And then for the different ethnic groups in İstanbul governed by the new new laws of owned by him. Also, in order to encourage the merchant activities, he constructed  Kapalı Çarşı as Seljuk has approached as well in Koza Han consisted of square bays capped with rounded. Fatih has inspired by the Italy’s technical and cultural innovations, especially the city walls of the new city. They constructed fortifications on the Bosporus to block the Christian naval support to Byzantine. These Yedikule fortifications were star shaped. He converted Hagia Sophia into the Palantine church, added minarets to make a royal church and also changed the main axis. And then on, he constructed Fatih Camii with the inspiration that he gathered from great Byzantine church. This new church was rival with the Hagia Sophia. Because the grand hemispherical dome that is less than few meters diameter than Hagia Sophia. The small cubes were supported by pointed arches of old granite columns on top of each bays of the courtrooms. Plus, he built a tube which is octagonal for himself and for mother of his heir. He demanded to add a brand new palace in the peninsula unlike the old palace in the center of the city. This new palace is called Topkapı Sarayı. It was like an antithesis of European palaces as asymmetrical and looking more like a garden rather than a building. The most significant parts of these palaces were divans and harems. Divan is mostly used for the official meetings of the government. It consisted of three domed spaces and L shaped.

Western Europe After the Roman Empire

The cities of western Roman Empire have suffered from a lot of conquests, plagues and financial problems from fifth century to the year of 1000. As a result of these issues, the population had been decreased day  by day so as well as the international trade had been declined too. Because of the feudal political system divided the whole society into three groups. The ones who fought, the ones who prayed and the one who were working as slaves.

As the years passed, the new feeling of cultural and economic acceptance promoted the journeys of pilgrims of Christianity. They had journeys from England, Germany and France to either Jerusalem, Rome, or Santlago de Compostela, Spain. The huge churches, hospitals, monasteries and castles built all over the Europe. This has began after the millennium represented an optimistic architectural expression of a progressive social order.

All along the period of Charlemagne, the Franks merged together the regions of France, Germany, Switzerland, Czechoslovakia and Austria. Charlemagne’s short winded vision of Renovatio Romanae Imperii, the reawaking of the unity and greatness of Roman Empire of Constantine, affected fervent several decades of architectural patronage. Apart from various royal palaces built for his itinerant court, he promoted for the constuctio of many cathedrals and very huge number of monasteries, Similar to the rulers of outhwest Asia called Khamer, Charlemagne trusted on the support of the monastic settlements to promote the regime of him. With this way, he encouraged the religious orders, and by the eleventh century the network of Benedictine monasteries, developing under the authority of the Abbey of cluny. It played the deciding role in hole European politics.

Charlemagne’s palace and chapel was a key project for his most known efforts to reawake the Roman Empire. It is located in Aix la Chapelle and now it is know as Aachen.

600-800 / Spread of Islam

The religion Islam which is developed aound the guidance of Prophet Muhammad, has began spread from Arabia to Southwest Asia, Persia and also to North Africa. The spread of Islam is related with the success of conquests and the racial movements. They produced multicolumned prayer places called mosques. The mosques provided new reliogous focus of cities. To add new vertial axis to the architecture to them, they built minarets where the muezzin prays and calls for the other believers. Against the irregularity of the plans, the Islam gave importance to the sense of order  in the radial orientation of religous places such as mosques, tombs and Mecca.

Mecca and Medina

These cities also known as the city of Muhammad and his followers. Even though the cities of Mecca and Medina had an  urban civilizations from the earlier ages, they tried to keep the cities as the part of the most migrant culture. All along around the seventh century Islam started to spread very immediately and they seperate the pagan cults by the force of military.

Mecca had been the center of attracting the believers to pilgrims to the Kaaba. The Kaaba is the building that is a cubical granite house and icludes an inexplicable black meteorite. After having various battles Muhammed conquered the Medina. And then he simplified the Kaaba from its representation of pagan culture. He believed that the angel Gabriel gave that sacred black stone to Abraham and then he built the original structure. The Muslims circumambulate  the Kaaba 7 times in pilgrims. So that, it is the focus point of the Muslims. So this focus point became a symbol of the unity of the faithful. Muhammad transformed his own house in Medina into the mosqued called “place of prostration”. He promoted the vernacular methods for mud bricks walls and palm-trunk roofs. A long portico was protecting the north side from the sun. Previously, he oriented the first prayer hall to Jerusalem which is known as the qibla. After the coquest of Mecca he redirected the qibla to the Kaaba. The believers added a second portico to thw south side of the Prophet Muhammad’s mosque. The mosque was a representation of small trader’s caravansary. As well as the Christians, the first believers of the Islam were against the form of pagan temples. They preferred the base their cult buildings on secular structures.The initial ones took the place of the foru and basiliicas of Roman age. The firts mosques were having a simple architectural settings such as they didnt have any apses, side chapels, ambulatories, cyrpts, baptisteries nor choirs.

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The Ummayad Period: Jerusalem and Damascus

The Umayyads settled in the Greco Roman city where they have a perfect urban culture inspired by the Byzantines. As well as the all migrat people, Arabs had lack of knowledge of masonry architecture. They inspired by the techniques from Persian, Roman and Byzantine cultures. The master of the first great Umayyad monumennt called Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, most probably hired an architect while designing it from Byzantine and mosaic artist from Constantinople. They created an elevated terrace directed to the center o Temple Mount. The new religion was against the representation and using  the human figures ad also glorification to the things. They were supporting the decorative inscriptions instead of narrative scenes with human figures. The arcade had two other characteristics which became common in Islamic architecture such as pointed arches and ablaq.

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Gupta India

In that era that Indian Empire had been growing, the megalith builders tried ways of using pure stone. They carved out stone cliffs and pilled out the stones to gather making the art of subtraction. Subtraction is something that allows people to give up on functional criteria such as foundations, support systems and roofs. However, it provides organization of materials as well. Once they removed the materials, it was nt easy to replace it again. The rock-cut temples were relied upon the things what nature gave to them.

In the Gupta period, the builders were known as their success of the rock-cutting traditions. They were affected from the great cave monasteries by carving single masses of stones. The examples of initial temples were built seem like pyramids over small sanctruaries.

Their architects designed their buildings according to their religious beliefs. The multiple sources of religious and secular authority, however,  continued to discourage national unity. The Buddishm that they believed has provided a lot of different prototypes. So that, they have worked again on the buildings according to Hindu and Jain buidings. Buddhists promoted their projects for chaitya halls and viharas (monasteries). However, few of them built with permanent materials. The examples that has remained are the ones in the carved in the cliffs. The Ghats, hills formed from horizontal shelves of stone in the central western regions of India near Mumbai, served as the site for many of the great rock-cut works. The caves that are located in Bhaja, were almost the earliest Indian Rock-cut temples. The most ornamented examples of the early rock chaitya halls were located in Karli. The designers of the screen doors and clerestory windows of the halls made with the combination of stone with wooden details. The designers used pointed and flat chisels to carve the stone.   The Temple 17, looked like it was extracted from a cliff and transferred to a site. The columns that have rose frome square bases created a level of complexity, similar to the ones at the chaitya. The monasteries with Buddhist affect which Ajanta, Maharashastra in the 5th century, have the marvelous decoration that had coprus statues of Buddha. The palaces at that location had open varendhas decorated with wooden columns. The horzontally placed vaults titled the city  gates.

200 BCE-300CE / Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome, ancient China and ancient Mexico are the three of the large empires that dominated the whole world history of the first century in BCE. The three of those cultures are regulated their cities and their buildings according to a grid layout. Despite the fact that Rome is located in a topography with mostly hills, they used a strict grid systems while they are building ther cities and buildings instead of a rational structures. The Romans gave a huge importance to their cities as their religious approaches and the victory of the military was having religious meanings for them.

In the most of the ancient cultures, there were very less examples of high quality buildings that represents religious or political approaches. Nonetheless, some of the cities that were governed with Hellenistic regimes,  had  a lot of highly qualified architectural works. Roman Empire sophisticated itself with a comprehensive approach urban architecture. So that, they gained stunning results of this approach. They built a lot of cities that were well served and furnished with colonnades.

The city of Rome, regarded itself as “caput mundi” namely  “head of the world”. The Roman generals used architectural projects to to dictate the power of the empire. They produce a lot of new colonnaded enclosures with different architectural elements yet, by taking Hellenistic cities as model. All through the Roman Empire age, the designers and architects built up cities of a brand new type. Such as, public space and public architecture provided a formal envelope for daily existance. Roman people  were not cruel people. They tried to serve a good life to inhabitants that lives in the conquered lands by Romans. Romans, served them a equitable system, market places, great infrastructure of roads and aqueducts, public baths and etc. Their most striking fature is the talent of mastering space with using arches, vaults and new the new technology of concrete consturction.

In the first two centuries of Rome, the king  borrowed regulations and religious practices and architecure from Etruscans culture. Because Etruscans were more developed than the Roman culture. The other thing that is good of developing Etruscan culture is that, the Etruscan architects brought technology of arches and vaults that is very usefull for such works such as arched gateways. Most of the Roman temples repeated the Etruscan of frontal orientation.

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A city that includes a lot of one of the best preserved examples of Roman architecture, called Pompeii. However, because of the eruption of Vesuvius the city has been destroyed. Unfortunately, the streets and buldings of the city embedded uner the ashes of volcanic eruption. This small city were having the complete urban system that exemplifies the importance of public space to Roman daily life. The pattern of city of Pompeii is a combinated version of different cultural ideas such as Oscan, Etruscan, Greek and Roman. For instance, the blocks that are long and orthogonal are taken reference from both Greeks and typicall Roman square blocks. The public space that is called th Forum of Pompeii showes the Roman preference for axial orientation. Roman cities, like Pompeii, were always having a public space like forums also a temple and a basilica too. The Basilica of Pompeii had a covered hall used for the administirative business. Mostly tha gates of basilicas were put in the long edge of the buildings, however, in the Basilica of the Pompeii the gate was put in the short edge of the bulding. This approach enhances the axiality of the structure from the foru to colonnades toward tribunal. The centeral space is elevated double height and framed by columns. The openings above at the walls were creating a natural light.

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In additional to the temples and tombs that they built for citizens needs, they also produced a lot of secular monuments such as baths and theaters. Greeks ere building their theaters to the contours of sloping sites. However, Romans were building them as freestanding monuments using arches and concrete vaults. Those Roman theaters were usully ncluding a temple. First of the theater in Rome was built for the general Pompey. It had a small tempe which was overlooking to te cavea. Cavea is a sloped seat that is formed as semi-cycle for sitting. Unlike the Greeks, Romans filled the orchestra with patrician seating.

Romans invented a new form of theater called amphitheater. An amphitheater is something that combinatio of two theaters to form an ellipse. They included greate stones and concrete shells. The arenas were important for those amphitheaters too. It was a continuous stone bleacher held behind retaining walls or on an elaborate syste of concrete vaulted substructures.